Normal Anatomy of the Hip Joint
The thigh bone, femur, and the pelvis, acetabulum, join to form the hip joint. The hip joint is a “ball and socket” joint.
Hip dysplasia is a condition which is seen in infants and young children as a result of developmental problems in the hip joint. The femur (thigh bone) partially or completely slips out of the hip socket causing dislocation at the hip joint. It is most common in first born baby with family history of the disorder. The exact cause for hip dysplasia is not known. Genetic factors play an important role in causing this birth defect.
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Legg-Calve-Perthes Disease (LCPD) or Perthes disease is a disorder of the hip that affects children, usually between the ages of 4 and 10. It usually involves one hip, although it can occur on both sides in some children. It occurs more commonly in boys than girls.
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Slipped capital femoral epiphysis (SCFE) is a common hip disorder in adolescents causing slippage or separation of the femoral head (ball at the upper end of the femur bone) from the weakened epiphyseal growth plate (growing end of the bone).This condition often develops during the rapid growth period after the onset of puberty, and may affect one or both legs at a time. The separation may be caused by an injury or other factors such as obesity and hormonal imbalances. SCFE commonly occurs in children between 11 and 15 years and boys are more likely to develop the condition than girls.
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Femoroacetabular impingement (FAI), often referred to as hip impingement is a condition where there is too much friction in the hip joint from bony irregularities causing pain and decreased range of hip motion. The femoral head and acetabulum rub against each other creating damage and pain to the hip joint. The damage can occur to the articular cartilage (the smooth white surface of the ball or socket) or the labral tissue (the lining of the edge of the socket) during normal movement of the hip. The articular cartilage or labral tissue can fray or tear after repeated friction. Over time, more cartilage and labrum is lost until eventually the femur bone and acetabulum bone impact on one other. Bone on bone friction is commonly referred to as Osteoarthritis.
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Snapping hip syndrome also referred to as dancer’s hip is a condition that causes a snapping sound in your hip joint while walking, getting up from a chair or while swinging the leg around. The syndrome most often occurs among dancers and young athletes.
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Osteoarthritis, also called degenerative joint disease is the most common form of hip arthritis. It occurs most often in older people. This disease affects the tissue covering the ends of bones in a joint (cartilage).
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Avascular Necrosis of the Hip
Avascular necrosis, also known as AVN and osteonecrosis, is a disease caused from inadequate blood supply to the bone which leads to bone death.
This disease is most common in adults aged 30-60 but can also occur in children, mainly from cancer therapy. It can affect one or more bones and if left untreated, it can lead to destruction of the adjacent bones, tissues and joints.
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Rheumatoid Arthritis of the hip
Rheumatoid arthritis is a chronic inflammatory disease in which the lining of the hip joint become inflamed, causing pain, swelling, and stiffness. It is as an ‘autoimmune disease’ because it occurs when our immune system, which normally fights against infection, starts destroying healthy joints. Severe rheumatoid arthritis can be very painful and even deform or change the hip joint. It also affects a person’s ability to perform routine activities.
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Click on the topics below to find out more from the orthopedic connection website of American Academy of Orthopedic Surgeons.
- Femoroacetabular Impingement (FAI)
- Hip Arthroscopy
- Hip Bursitis
- Hip Dislocation
- Muscle Strains in the Thigh
- Snapping Hip